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EN501: Archive Bibliography

Page history last edited by Tonya Howe 15 years, 3 months ago

As the final portion of the archive and annotated bibliography assignment sequence, upload the bibliographic entries and annotations from your annotated bibliography to this page of the course wiki. You may do this by COPYING the body of your text in Word and PASTING it into this page, though be aware that some formatting may look different. To add your text, click the EDIT tab above. Put your bibliographic entries in alphabetical order, as you would with your own works cited page--and remember to put your name after your annotations. Please use the formatting parameters that already exist!


Annotated Bibliography


Abbott, Charles. An essay on the use and abuse of satire. Oxford: Corpus Christi College, 1786. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 21 October 2008. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>

Written closer to the end of the 18th century, Abbot discusses in depth his understanding of four different types of satire: personal, political, moral, and critical. His essay examines each one and explores situations in which they are beneficial to people and society as well as situations wherein the satire is taken over the top and becomes damaging. Ultimately, he concludes that the positives derived from effective use of satire far outweighs the disadvantages hailing from poor use of satire. Within my essay: I plan on using this work as a framework to examine Pope's usage of satire within The Rape of the Lock.  [Healy, Fall 2008]


An Address to proprietors of Irish estates, residing in Great Britain. London, 1800. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C.8 Oct 2008 <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>.

This primary source is an address to the people to organize funds in order to disperse the Holy Scriptures to the lower class Irish community in Great Britain. The point of this was to civilized the “barbarism” of that class level. There is also a statement implies that they will accept their gift of the Scriptures regardless of being able to read. This source says a lot about Bible dissemination, class structure, and education. [Szkutak, Fall 2008] 


Anne. The Letters and Diplomatic Instructions.  Ed. Beatrice Curtis Brown. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968.

This is a primary source containing the letters of Queen Anne of England (1665-1714). The letters begin in her youth starting with the letter dated 1679 and ending with letters in the year of her death, 1714.  The most interesting letters are those to her sister, the Princess of Orange and later Queen Mary, as Anne writes to assure her of her allegiance to the Protestant faith and elaborates on her domestic life with Prince George of Denmark and their efforts to produce an heir to the throne.  The later correspondence deals primarily with the running of the government and diplomatic dispatches, showing how the Queen accepted her responsibilities as Queen as she met with her privy council twice a week. [Absher, Fall 2008] 


Ashton, John. Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne.  London, 1897. 

This work provides a history of the social life during the reign of Queen Anne.  It is composed of chapters dealing with childhood and education, marriage, death and burial, servants, daily life, etc.  Its most interesting chapter is on gambling and speculation during the reign of Queen Anne as it gives background information on the card games at Hampton Court. [Absher, Fall 2008]


Ault, Norman, ed. The Prose Works of Alexander Pope, Vol. 1, The Earlier Works, 1711-1720. London: Shakespeare Head Press, 1936.

This volume is largely a collection of Alexander Pope’s letters, but it also include some of his important texts, such as the introduction for “The Rape of the Lock” and “A Key to the Lock,” as well as his essays printed in The Spectator. [Aymar, Fall 2008]


Bland,   James  M.D The Charms of Women: or A Mirrour for Ladies Wherin The Accomplishments of the Fair Sex are impartially Delineated…With occasional remarks upon the dress of ladies. London: E. Curll, 1736. <http://georgetownlibraries.galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>.

This primary source works much like a conduct manual for the ladies of the eighteenth century.  It has chapters that advise on Frugality, Chastity, Temperance, and Marriage.  I will use the chapters entitled Chastity, and temperance.  The chapter that explains the value of Chastity intimates a relationship between “dress” and sexuality.  According to Bland, Chastity: “gives to the body, enlivens the senses, brightens the eyes, even like sparkling diamonds; and illustrates both the fairest complexion..” like cosmetics (71).  The noble virtue, “raises all the powers and faculties of the soul, and sets them a spiritualizing the materiality of the more terrestrial part (72). [Garad, Fall 2008]


Boscawen, William. The Progress of Satire: An Essay in Verse. London: Printed for J. Bell, No. 148 Oxford St., 1798. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 21 October 2008. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO> 

Boscawen presents a long verse essay that highlights the development of satire from a more comical approach into a combination of its comedic roots as well as a deliberate method for adding depth to an argument. Boscawen utilizes some historical allusions to illustrate the progression and discusses different types of satire. At the conclusion of the poem, Boscawen discusses the value of satire for those who can see past what is being satirized and arrive at larger points. [Healy, Fall 2008]


Broich, Ulrich. "Alexander Pope, The Ideal of the Hero, Ovid, and Menippean Satire." Studies in the Literary Imagination Vol. 38, No.1 (2005): 179-197. MLA International Bibliography. Marymount University Reinsch Library, Arlington, VA. 16 October 2007. <http://www.mla.org/bibliography/>

Broich focuses his essay on a perceived eighteenth-century literary tradition of rejecting heroes. He argues that major literary contributors of the 18th century were deliberate in the deconstruction and negative critique of the hero. Among the methods employed in this tradition was the development of the mock-epic and Broich provides a paradoxical explanation for this. Broich maintains that 18th century writers regarded the epic as the peak of literary achievement but at the same time decried further support or belief in epic heroes. Broich specifically examines Pope's translation of epic poems and construction of The Rape of the Lock as examples falling within this paradox. [Healy, Fall 2008]


Brown, Laura. Ends of Empire: Women and Ideology in Early Eighteenth-Century English Literature Cornell University Press, Ithica New York 1993

Brown discusses the perception of women in Eighteenth Century women.  Focusing on the chapter, “Capitalizing on Women: Dress, Aesthetics and Alexander Pope”.  Brown argues that “eighteenth century aesthetics provides an ideal context in which to observe the functional relationship with gender and empire” (104).  Moreover, when referencing the dressing scene in Canto I, of Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock,  she emphasizes the significance of,  paradox of the undress of nature and “elaborate ornamentation” (107).  She states, that “ the beauty that emerges in that passage, in a “manner subsidiary and trivial, to heighten or embellish qualities already present in “nature” (107).  Brown’s idea, further illustrates my argument that dress, in Pope’s poem and times works to attempts to hide it on the surface but ultimately embellishes and allude to sexuality.   [Garad, Fall 2008]


Bulcholz, R.O. The Augustan Court: Queen Anne and the Decline of Court Culture. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1993.

The author contends that the personality as well as the ill health of Queen Anne lead to the decline of the court's social life during her reign.  Anne was pregnant eighteen times and only one of her children, the Prince of Wales, survived infancy.  Her husband, Prince George of Denmark. died in 1708 leaving the Queen Anne in mourning.  Anne also suffered from eye problems and gout.  She was very shy and did not like to go on progress or hold extravagant parties.  The author contends that Alexander Pope in describing court life at Hampton Court harks back to the days of Charles II when court life was more entertaining and full of gossip and intrigue. [Absher, Fall 2008]


The Case of the Shopkeepers, Manufacturers, and Fair Traders of England, against the Hawkers, Peddlers, and other Clandestine Traders.  London, 1730. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 8 Oct 2008 <http://ggalenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>. 

This document is from a case between the merchants that reside in England and the various traveling peddlers which try to see their wares while there. The merchants make it clear that it is not fair to them that the people are allow to sell items without paying taxes and by smuggling goods into the country. They also made it evident that these wares sell for cheaper than theirs and could hinder their businesses. There is no outcome in this document but it is good evidence to how the merchants feel about commerce in England during that time. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Cohen, Murray. “Versions of the Lock: Readers of ‘The Rape of the Lock’.” ELH, 43.1 (1976): 53-73.

This article looks at various ways readers can interpret the different characters and objects on Rape of the Lock. Cohen looks at the allegorical themes, moral situations, illusions, and divides the analysis up into the different sections of the poem. There emphasis on the object throughout the poem as examples of the different themes and can be interpreted in a variety of ways. This article briefly discusses the bible on the table as maybe a moral situation, the objects that are valued. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Cohen, Ralph.  Transformation in The Rape of the LockEighteenth Century Studies.  2.3 (1969): 205-206,209-212, 216-222.  JSTOR.  2 Nov. 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2737687>

Ralph Cohen examines the various methods Pope used to write the classic mock epic.  He explains that the “charm” of The Rape of the Lock exists in its irony—mainly aristocratic artificiality.  Thomas Marc Parrott wrote in that, The Rape of the Lock represents Pope’s attitude to the social life of his time…it is the poets sympathy with the world he paints which gives to the poem the air, most characteristic of the age itself, of easy, idle, unthinking gayety.  We would not have it otherwise.” This article compared with Belinda’s excessive attributes of her cosmetics relates to how women of Belinda’s status may have felt they needed to present themselves by adopting modern values and abandoning those values that were from a more traditional nature.  Pope’s depiction of Belinda’s “sacred rite of pride” creates a sense of false pride that women created for themselves when they make themselves up. What Cohen is suggesting by referencing specific passages is that, “the language of looking and watching, of movement and transformation are typical of techniques in the poem that illustrate the power of natural to invalidate the aid of the artificial.” (222). [Vitale-Drabic, Fall 2008]


Crehan, Stewart. “The Rape of the Lock and the Economy of ‘Trivial Things’.” Eighteenth-Century Studies, 31.1 (1997): 45-68.

This article is an analysis of Pope’s writing style and its connection to political economy and commerce. Crehan uses a literary analysis of Rape of the Lock to show how Pope is using various writing techniques, like bathos, alliteration, and metaphor, in order to convey the ever-changing economy. This article spends a lot of time focused on Belinda and her various “trivial things.” Crehan uses historical background in his analysis of economics which may be helpful when discussing trade in the 18th century. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Croker, John Wilson, ed. The Works of Alexander Pope, Vol. 1. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1871.

This book is a collection of Alexander Pope’s essays, letters and illustrations in six volumes. The first volume is solely Pope’s correspondence between the dates of 1705 through 1735, and illuminate Pope’s private views regarding his illness, publication, society and other topical matters to his time. [Aymar, Fall 2008]  


Gray, William. William Gray, at the Bible in Canon Alley, against the north-door of St. Paul’s London, book-binder, binds, and sells bibles, common prayers, and testaments. London, 1709. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 8 Oct 2008 <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>.

William Gray published this as an ad for his shop where he sold and bound Bibles and books. It includes a brief list of the types of books he sold, including Testaments, Books of Devotion, “Grammers,” and Spelling books. At the bottom he specifies that he “binds in all sorts of leather, very neat,…” and does all this at “reasonable rates.” This source is a good example of the commerce that was going on in the eighteenth century with books and Bibles. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Halsband, Robert. The Rape of the Lock and its Illustrations, 1714-1896. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. 

This book is a chronological examination of the plates and paintings of scenes taken from “The Rape   of the Lock,” with a particular focus on the Swiss painter Henry Fuceli as well as his disciples. It provides a historically social context for the art and explores the often subtle inclusions of sexual promiscuity and fleeting morality. [Aymar, Fall 2008]


Harrington, Dana.  “Gender, Commerce, and the Transformation of Virtue in Eighteenth- Century Britain.”  Rhetoric Society Quarterly  Vol 31 Number 3 (2001): 33-49.

This article begins with a discussion of how education is the key to women being pious and having virtue.  A lack of education for women could lead to “the natural delicacies of the sex” being thrown off.  It then talks about how virtue was defined in the 18th century (this being in what the article calls the “classic civic tradition”), meaning that virtue was thought of in terms of “public service to the state” It then goes on to discuss redefining and “feminizing” virtue.  These last two ideas I think will be helpful  in writing my paper. [Spina, Fall 2008]


Harris, Francis.  A Passion for Government: the life of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

Before Anne became Queen she became fast friends with Sarah Jennings, who later became the Duchess of Marlborough.  Sarah used her influence with the Queen to promote the career ofher husband John Churchill, later the Duke of Marlborough and head of Queen Anne's armies.  Queen Anne and Sarah ultimately had a falling out over whether the Whigs and not the Tori9es should be placed in government.  These two powerful women and their interest in politics draws a drastic contrast to Belinda and her pursuit of pleasures during the reign of Queen Anne. [Absher, Fall 2008]



Harrow, Sharon  Adventures in Domesticity: Gender and Colonial Adulteration in Eighteenth-Century British Literature. AMS Press, Inc. Brooklyn, New York 2004

I will use the chapter titled, “Homely Adventures”: Domesticity, Adulteration, and Culteral Mixing in Daniel Defoe’s Captain Singleton.  This text argues that Defoe’s work “grapples with the question of commercial sexual economy in the early-eighteenth-century transatlantic England (28). [Garad, Fall 2008]


Hazard, Joseph. Books printed for, and sold by Joseph Hazard at the Bible against Stationers-Hall, near Ludgate, London. London, 1731. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 8 Oct 2008 <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>. 

This is a list and short descriptions of the books sold and printed for Joseph Hazard. The list includes a variety of religious books, like bibles, devotional manuals, prayer books, preparatory books for communion, and the doctrine. He also sold a variety of educational books for the younger crowd, grammars and arithmetic. Also sold were books for leisure, by very few, a book about gardens, maps, the history of Scotland, and a book about “hydraulicks.” This source provides a very good sense of the book market in the eighteenth century and includes descriptions. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


—.  London printed: and sold by Joseph Hazard, at the Bible in Stationers-court, near Ludgate; who sells all sorts of books, primers, psalters, grammars, and all sorts of school- books. London, 1720. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 8 Oct 2008 <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>. 

Like the ad that William Gray had, Joseph Hazard also had one. His ad includes a brief overview of what his shop offered, including bibles, testaments, common prayers, etc. Unlike the Gray ad Hazard does not indicated book binding or reasonable pricing. The ad includes a large picture of Hazard in a large wig and brief text. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Hernandez, Alex Eric. “Commodity and Religion in Pope’s Rape of the Lock.Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 48.3 (2008): 569-584.

This article is about religious imagery throughout Rape of the Lock and the fetishes Pope expresses through the objects in the poem. Hernandez includes information about the consumer culture of eighteenth century England and the way Pope shows this culture. There is also an emphasis on Pope’s religious background and his decision to place the Bible in the poem as he did. This is a great source for evidence about the religious satire Pope creates and about commerce in the 18th century. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Hurry, Samuel.  A Meeting of the Merchants, Traders, and Inhabitants of Great Yarmouth. Yarmouth, England, 1792. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 8 Oct 2008 <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>.

This meeting document is a statement from the merchant and traders in Yarmouth, a coastal town in which they will attempt to prosper in commerce and navigation. It is also an attachment of the merchants to the constitution in the country. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Hyde, Melissa.  The “Makeup” of the Marquise: Boucher’s Portrait of Pompadour at Her ToiletteThe Art Bulletin, 82.3 (2000): 453-459.  JSTOR.  29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3051397>

Hyde’s article “The “Makeup” of the Marquise”… explains the idea of the Toilette and how the women of the early 18th century saw it as a shrine.  It depicts the act of “illuminating” the face and how putting makeup on was a symbolic practice women conducted to help identify distinctions among their social classes, court politics, and among themselves.  This relates to the excessive value Belinda attributes to her make-up and how those excessive attributions relate to Belinda’s sacred rite of pride.  Pope’s satire can be understood better upon reading “The “Makeup” of the Marquise” because it analyzes this idea of being made up and the emphasis of it among women.  Pope sees how those trivial things appear to reveal a strong sense of importance among society and he mocks it because of its triviality.  [Vitale-Drabic, Fall 2008]


Hyman, Stanley Edgar.  The Rape of the Lock.  The Hudson Review.  13, No. 3 (1960) 406-412.  JSTOR.  2 Nov. 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3847965>

Hyman’s article explores the effects of Pope’s epic imagery and how it explains the intricate ritual of Belinda at her dressing table as well as the journey of Umbriel into the Cave of Spleen.  Hyman examines specific lines of the poem and the ways Pope has constructed the lines to display hidden meanings such as the title; The Rape of the Lock being the Rape by the baron.  In addition, he discusses Belinda’s toilet as a “holy ritual” and how Pope creates her to look as though she is a priestess or goddess of her time.  Pope’s comic structure of the poem allows readers to gauge an understanding of the trivialities that he appeared to be concerned with—specifically the women and “the moving toy-shop of their heart.”  This is a particularly useful article in order to analyze specific passages from the text and how Pope’s satire can be better understood. [Vitale-Drabic, Fall 2008]


Kowaleski-Wallace, Beth. “Women, China, and Consumer Culture in Eighteenth-Century England.” Eighteenth-Century Studies, 29.2 (1996): 153-167.

This article goes into the consumer culture of the 18th century, which includes the various objects found in Rape of the Lock. There in emphasis on the East India Trading company and the china found in England. Kowaleski-Wallace also focuses on the women and their culture, so the second half of the article is about other poems and books from the eighteenth century. This could also be helpful when looking into the books that sold more than others, i.e. the Bible. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Latimer, Bonnie. "Alchemies of Satire: A History of the Sylphs in The Rape of the Lock." The Review of English Studies, New Series Vol. 57, No. 232 (2006): 684-700. MLA International Bibliography. Marymount University Reinsch Library, Arlington, VA. 29 October 2007. <http://www.mla.org/bibliography/>

Latimer begins her essay by observing that readers and critics of Pope often downplay the simple humorous intentions and elements of The Rape of The Lock. Latimer recognizes the machinery of the sylphs as an important satirical element of The Rape and focuses her essay on a historical tracing of these ideas from Pope's predecessors into his own writing. Latimer develops two ideas fully in her eassy, the first is that a tradition of “rhetoric of false chastity” is crucial to understanding the sexual humor of the play (693). The second is a discussion of the sylphs as machinery within The Rape of the Lock. Latimer concludes with an observation of the overwhelming amount of critical angles that can be used in reading Pope and commends him for his multi-leveled satirical constructions. [Healy, Fall 2008]


Mansfield, Harvey C.  “Rational Control, or,  Life without Virtue.” The New Criterion  September, 2006: 39-44.

This article talks about “rational control”, which is defined as “our entire lives, holding nothing back – which means holding nothing sacred – to an examination by our reason as to whether we can live more effectively.” I thought this idea applied to Belinda and how I plan to discuss her character in my paper.  The “old way” of piety – do good, but receive evil is also mentioned.  The question is raised as to whether this “evil “that is received is really evil, or does the “new” formula “Lower your moral standards to secure better results” more appropriate. [Spina, Fall 2008]


Marlborough, Sarah (Jennings) Churchill.  Private Correspondence of Sarah Duchess of Marlborough, Illustrative of the Court and Times of Queen Anne; with Her Sketches and Opinions of her Contemporaries and the Select Correspondence of Her Husband, John, Duke of Marlborough. 2nd ed. London: Henry Colburn Publisher, 1838.  New York: Kraus Reprinting Company, 1972.

Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, letters to Queen Anne are a primary source showing the affection of the two women during the early years of Queen Anne's life and reign.  Also published is a harsh letter from Sarah criticizing the Queen for favoring the Tory government over the Whigs. [Absher, Fall 2008]


Merrett, Robert James. “Death and Religion in The Rape of the Lock.” Mosaic. 15:1 (1982): 29-39.

This essay discusses death and religion as central themes to “The Rape of the Lock” by an examination of Pope’s personal thoughts on both. Merrett uses Pope’s correspondences and other works to build the case that the poem “has for its most basic touchstone the fact of mortality.” [Aymar, Fall 2008]


Minney, R.J. Hampton Court. New York: Coward, McCann, and Geoghegan, Inc., 1972.

Provides a detailed account of the history of Hampton Court Palace beginning with Cardinal Wolsely building of the palace, and Henry VIII's usurpation of the grounds and the building in 1530 when he moved into the palace with Anne Boleyn and began making massive restorations.  Gives account in one chapter of Queen Anne at Hampton Court and use the Rape of the Lock to describe the setting there.  States that the actual controversy used for the basis of Rape of the Lock did not happen in Hampton Court Palace itself but in adjacent buildings surrounding the Palace. [Absher, Fall 2008]


Munns, Jessica; Richards Penny,The Clothes That Wear Us: Essays on Dressing and Transgressing in Eighteenth-Century Culture. University of Delaware Press, September, 1999.

Munns and Richards discuss the relevance dress and what it signifies in the eighteenth century.  For the purposes of my argument I use the chapter, Reading Dress, Reading Culture: The Trial of Joesph Gerald, 1794.  This chapter investigates the symbolism in choice of dress, and “examines the context of clothing”( 323).  I also use an image in this text as a primary source.  An engraving by Nicolas Arnoult.  I use this photo “Untitled” to examine the dress of the women in the photo.  The women adorned in a lavish dress with her hair partially covered (193).  What I found intriguing and beneficial for my argument is that the women is covered almost completely only exposing her forearms and neck very little of her chest, and the front of her hair.  While most of her body is covered with layers of clothes, she is also restrained by a corset which disfigures her body, and embellishes her supposedly hidden sexuality.  [Garad, Fall 2008]


Nickolson, Colin. “The Mercantile Bard: Commerce and Conflict in Pope.” Studies in the Literary Imagination, 38.1 (2005): 77-94.

Nickolson’s article focuses on Pope and his publishing expertise in manipulating the public to buy his works. The article then goes into Pope’s writing as it reflects commerce and the political issues of the 18th century. One of the arguments is about the raise of the middle class in what should be an aristocratic society. The raising of this class meant more money in the market and more buyers to Pope used it to his advantage and wrote about it and to them. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Palmer, Samuel. “Chapter XI: An Account of the First printed Bibles before the year 1501.” The general history of printing, from its invention in the city of Mentz,…. London, 1732. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 8 Oct 2008 <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>.

This is a chapter of a much larger book about the first printed bibles and their significance. In this chapter Palmer uses various bibles as examples of that was published and printed after 1501. This is because that is when printing began and when bibles were being produced. A good bible is will always include the date it was printed and the publisher in the text. This source is more of an overview of what is important in the publication of bibles, which can be used to describe commerce of the later periods. [Szkutak, Fall 2008] 


Pope, Alexander. A Key to the Lock. Or, a treatise proving, beyond all Contradiction, the dangerous Tendency of a late Poem, entituled, The Rape of the Lock. To Government and Religion. London: Oxford-Arms in Warwick Lane, 1715. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Georgetown University Lauinger Library, Washington, D.C. 21 October 2008. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>

Written under the pseudonym Esdras Barnivelt, Alexander Pope himself comically critiques The Rape of the Lock as threatening to the British government and Episcopalian Church. “Barnivelt” accuses much of The Rape of the Lock to contain either subtle or blatant endorsements of Catholicism and anti-British government propaganda. He critically examines elements of the poem's structure, allusions, and characters to expose these concerns. Taking into account the tension between the Episcopalian and Catholic Churches, Pope plays on these issues in constructing this inflammatory essay. Pope's purpose in writing this seems likely to be to point out to his contemporary critics to lighten up and not obsess over The Rape of the Lock. Within my essay: I will use this to reinforce Pope's understanding of satire as being a method to add meaning to a work with an element of responsibility for constructing meaning being placed on the reader. [Healy, Fall 2008]


---.  Of the Characters of women.  An epistle to a lady.  By Mr. Pope.  Dublin, (1735): A3-15.  Eighteenth Century Collections Online Group.  29 Oct, 2008 <http://georgetownlibraries.galnet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>

Pope’s epistle is written to provide direction to women on conduct and manners of how an ideal woman should act.  Pope depicts traits that are considered to be inappropriate of women such as, displaying too much pride, or acting in a pretentious manner. This epistle related to The Rape of the Lock helps to identify Pope’s illustration of Belinda’s behaviors at her Toilette.  Belinda’s activities categorize Pope’s view of an undesirable woman, and the epistle outlines the criticisms Pope appears to construct about women in an aristocratic society.  In addition, this helps to understand the satire he works with in writing The Rape of the Lock and how he disparages Belinda’s rituals. [Vitale-Drabic, Fall 2008]


Queen Anne. “By the Queen: A Proclamation, For the Encouragement of Piety and Virtue, and For the Preventing and Punishing of Vice, Profanities & Immorality.” Charles Bell and Thomas Newcomb. London. 1702. 

This is a short speech (or proclamation) given by Queen Anne warning women of the consequences of becoming immoral or and “loose” – to use one of today’s phrases. [Spina, Fall 2008]

Sharpe, Charles Kirkpatrick. The Cave of Spleen. Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The Rape of the Lock and its Illustrations, 1714-1896. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. 66. 

This painting, by Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, a disciple of Henry Fuceli, is a graphic demonstration of both the sexual and mortal dangers throughout the Cave of the Spleen. Sharpe based it off the earlier, more well-known, work by his mentor, but Sharpe’s work dismisses the subtlety of Fuceli in his unsparing effort to detail Pope’s erotic, deathly vision. [Aymar, Fall 2008]


Spacks, Patricia. Desire and Truth: Functions of Plot in Eighteenth Century Novels University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London 1990.

Spacks explores the inner workings towards the “plot of power” and where it derives, in the chapter, “The Ideal Woman and the Plot of Power”.  She claims “her status (the eighteenth century woman) as an energetic and self-respecting woman becomes less important than her symbolic virtue” (85).   Her “symbolic virtue”, her appearance to seem virtuous is of more importance than the practice (85).  This ideology expressed in the text will further my argument of the significance of appearance. [Garad, Fall 2008]


Steele, Richard .  The Spectator No. 140 [“Ladies at Ombre”]. 1711. The Rape of the Lock. Ed. Cynthia Wall. Boston: Bedford Books., 1998. 366

This excerpt, which is in the back of our Bedford book contains the quote that sparked my idea for my paper.  It is a portion of a letter discussing the “expense of time” and more importantly the behavior inappropriate behavior of female “gamesters.” It even goes so far as to instruct the m to “lose with a better grace.” [Spina, Fall 2008]


Strachan, John.  For The Ladies.  History Today, 5.4 (2004): 21-26. 1 Nov. 2008 <http://www.historytoday.com/mainarticle>

For The Ladies describes the various magazines that targeted those specific female audiences like Belinda, to promote their lines of beauty.  In addition, these magazines that existed during the 18h century highlighted the materialistic objects Belinda fell victim to at her Toilette.  John Strachan points out the desires women had and how these magazines made it easy for women to acquire more and become absorbed in a world of frivolity.  This is evident when Pope describes Belinda’s dressing table, “ Here files of pins extend their shining rows, Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bibles, Billet-doux”(Pope I, 137-138).  Therefore, this article is a good source to help understand how these luxuries the women accumulated aided in Pope’s portrayal of how society became obsessed with materialistic attributes.  [Vitale-Drabic, Fall 2008]


Thurley, Simon. Hampton Court: A Social and Architectural History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

This text is a beautifully illustrated book that gives the social and architectural history of Hampton Court Palace starting with the building of the palace beginning with Cardinal Wolsely in 1522 and ending with Queen Anne's use of it until her death in 1714.  Thurley also describes Hampton Court and Queen Anne's social reign there as in decline with power going increasingly towards the political parties and less to the patronage of the monarch.  During her reign, Queen Anne spent little time at Hampton Court, preferring Windsor Castle to the palace.  But during the last years of her life, she began to entertain more frequently there when Pope's Rape of the Lock was written. [Absher, Fall 2008]


Thurston.  Joseph.  The Toilette.  In Three Books.  By Mr. Joseph Thurston.  London, (1730): A2-14, 26-32.  Eighteenth Century Collections Online Group.  29 Oct, 2008 <http://georgetownlibraries.galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO>   

Joseph Thurston’s poem depicts beautiful young women and their preparation to meet a man, but he suggests that they should not do it in vain but they should make themselves up in decency.  Thurston analyzes the notion of women “over doing it”.  This article is similar to Pope’s Rape of the Lock because it also gives the Toilette cosmetic powers similar to how Belinda gives her dressing table the same sense of power.  For example Thurston said, “Tho’ Drefs and Beauty e much assist the Fair, The grand Arcanum no inhabits there: Nymphs may our Eyes with glitt’ring Toys invade, the trembling Spangle, or the rich Brocade…” (Thurston, 12).  The portrayal of the Toilette and the nymphs with the glittering toys symbolizes this “sacred rite of pride” that Belinda subjected herself to everyday.  Therefore, this poem helps to understand how other authors of the time viewed the Toilette and its use by women of the time. [Vitale-Drabic, Fall 2008] 


Trevelyan, G.M. England Under Queen Anne. 3 vols. London: Collins, 1965. 

Famed British historian G.M. Trevelyan writes a comprehensive history in three volumes of Queen Anne beginning with Anne's ascension to the throne and ending with her death in 1714.  He describes the war with France and Spain from 1701-1714 that marked much of Queen Anne's reign and the Duke of Marlborough's efforts upon her and the kingdoms behalf to win the war over Louis XIV and France.  In the third volume he writes of the establishment of the Second Empire and rise of Great Britain as a sea faring power.  [Absher, Fall 2008]


Waller, Maureen. Ungrateful Daughters: the Stuart Princesses Who Stole Their Father's Crown. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003.

Waller describes James II's efforts to convert his two daughters from the Protestant faith to that of Catholicism and Anne's reluctuance to do so.  She also discusses William III invasion of Great Britain and the turn of allegiance of Queen Anne from that of her father to her brother-in-law.  The book describes Anne's rise to Queen after the death of her sister and William. [Absher, Fall 2008]


Walls, Kathryn. “The Unveiling of the Dressing Table in Pope’s Rape of the Lock, I. 121.” Notes and Queries, 53.2 (2006): 196-197.

This article focuses on Belinda’s table in Canto I, mostly in the context of Pope’s unveiling of the table to the reader. This article explains how the table can be seen as an alter and gave the definition from the OED that “Toilet” also has the alternate meaning of a veil or cloth cover. It is interesting when looking at the religious aspect of the poem in more detail. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Weinbrot, Howard D.. "Masked Men and Satire and Pope: Toward a Historical Basis for the Eighteenth-Century Persona." Eighteenth Century Studies Vol. 16, No.3 (Spring 1983): 265-289. MLA International Bibliography. Marymount University Reinsch Library, Arlington, VA. 16 October 2007. <http://www.mla.org/bibliography/>.

Weinbrot examines the theory of persona as applied to eighteenth-century literature, specifically the idea that satire from the 18th century should be read with careful consideration of the possibility that a work does not reflect the author's actual beliefs. Weinbrot discusses a historical tradition of authors masking their beliefs in their writings and demonstrates how satire as a natural evolution in this tradition. Weinbrot then focuses specifically on the critical debate surrounding Pope and whether or not his satire reflected his own personal beliefs and biases. [Healy, Fall 2008] 


Weisser, Susan, A “Craving Vacancy” Women and Sexual Love in the British Novel, 1740-1880 New York University Press, Washington Square, New York 1997 

Weisser discusses female restraint.  The restraint of “expressed sexual behavior” (22).  I will use parts of one chapter, to discuss the rhetoric used in describing the perceptions of women’s sexuality in the eighteenth Century.  The chapter, “The Double Message of Sexual Love” discusses desire, “the very act of wanting suggests knowledge of what is lacking in the actual’; the awareness of oneself, as a ‘craving vacancy”, there is a “consciousness of an external”.. and from this “awareness”, grows a kind of  “rebellion” (20-21).  The discussion of sexual restraint will help strengthen my argument by exploring these same themes within the context of women’s attire in eighteenth century.  It too, literally restrained and covered up the female body, yet alluded to rebellion and expression of female sexuality. [Garad, Fall 2008 


Wheeler, David. “Event as Text, Text as Event: Reading The Rape of the Lock.” Cutting Edges: Postmodern Critical Essays on Eighteenth Century Satire. Ed. James Gill. Tennessee Studies in Literature. 37. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995.

This section of the book Cutting Edges discussed Rape of the Lock through the words and structure Pope used to create it. This article focuses on the words and lines from the poem to analyze their meaning. There is a focus on the bible placement in the poem, and Wheeler states that there is a moral connection to the bible and where it is in the text. There is also a comparison of the bible to the cross that Belinda wears and the moral an immoral aspects of them both. This article will be helpful when looking at the text through the different objects that were traded in the 18th century. [Szkutak, Fall 2008]


Wimsatt,W. K. “Belinda Ludens: Strife and Play in The Rape of the Lock.” New Literary History.  Vol. 4 No. 2 (1973): 357-374. JSTOR.  <http://www.jstor.org/stable/468481>.  

The game of Ombre that Belinda plays during “Rape of the Lock” is discussed specifically in this essay, beginning with a discussion of the technicalities of the game.  This may be helpful for readers of my paper to understand because it will help them see how Belinda is able to win the game.  It also discusses the idea of the Epic Game, and device used in nearly all epic poems.  This could be useful as well as a possible discussion of why pope has his characters playing cards. [Spina, Fall 2008]



Comments (1)

Tonya Howe said

at 8:46 pm on Nov 9, 2008

Looking fabulous, you all!!

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